How the t-shirt is made: material, production process, manufacture, manufacture, use, dimensions, product (2023)


T-shirts are durable, versatile, and high-impact garments that can be worn as outerwear or undergarments. Since its inception in 1920, T-shirts have grown into a $2 billion market. T-shirts come in a variety of colors, patterns, and styles such as: B. with standard crew necks and V-necks, as well as tank tops and scoop necklines. The sleeves of the shirts can be short or long, with a cap, yoke or raglan. Other features include pockets and trim. T-shirts are also popular garments for displaying interests, likes, and affiliations with custom screen prints or heat transfers. Printed T-shirts can include political slogans, humor, art, sports, and famous people and places. T-shirts are also inexpensive advertising media for special products and occasions.

The shirts fit almost anyone of any size, from babies to seniors. Adult sizes are generally small, medium, large, and extra large, while infant sizes are determined by month and weight. Also, to accommodate babies' larger heads in relation to their bodies, shirts are specially designed with shoulder openings that can be fastened with buttons or snaps.

raw material

Most of the t-shirts are 100% cotton.Polyester,or a cotton/poly blend. Eco-conscious manufacturers may use organically grown cotton and natural dyes. Stretch jerseys are made of knitted fabrics, specifically jerseys, rib knits, and interlock rib knits, which are made of two rib knits joined together. Leotards are the most used because they are versatile, comfortable and relatively inexpensive. They are also a popular material for applying screen prints and heat transfers. Some jerseys are available in a tubular form, which simplifies the production process by reducing the number of seams. Ribbed knit fabrics are often worn when a close fit is desired. Many higher quality jerseys are made from durable interlock rib knit.

Neck ties hold the garment up and give the neckline of the shirt a more finished look. Neckbands are typically 1 by 1 inch rib, although heavier fabrics or higher quality shirts may require 2 by 2 ribs. Neckband fabrics can be ribbed tubular fabrics with specific widths or flat fabrics that need to be hemmed. Additional T-shirt materials include taping or stitching made from twill or other stiff fabric. Binding reinforces the neckline and shoulder seams and protects the seams from tearing under stress by covering them. Alternatively, elastic can be used at the shoulder seams to keep them flexible.

Thread is of course an essential item when sewing garments. Different types and colors of yarn can be used to make a single T-shirt. Some manufacturers use white thread to sew all of their shirts, regardless of color, eliminating the extra work of changing threads. The visible topstitching is done with a thread color that blends into the fabric. Colorless or monofilament hemming thread can be used on fabrics of any color, again eliminating the need for frequent thread changes, although monofilament thread can be somewhat irritating to the skin. Finally, optional decorative features may include embellishments such as braiding,

How the t-shirt is made: material, production process, manufacture, manufacture, use, dimensions, product (1)

Making T-shirts is a fairly simple and largely automated process. Specially designed machines integrate cutting, assembling and sewing for the most efficient operations.

Contrasting cuffs, appliqués and heat-transferable or screen-printed designs.


Making T-shirts is a fairly simple and largely automated process. Specially designed machines integrate cutting, assembling and sewing for the most efficient operations. The most commonly used seams for T-shirts are narrow overlapping seams, usually made by placing one piece of fabric on top of another and lining up the edges of the seam. These seams are often sewn with an overcasting stitch, which requires one needle thread from the top and two shuttle threads from the bottom. This special combination of sewing and stitching results in a flexible finished seam.

Another type of stitching that can be used on T-shirts is the chainstitch, in which a narrow piece of fabric is folded around a seam, such as a neckline. These seams can be joined with backstitch, chain or overlock. Depending on the style of the shirt, the order of assembly of the garment may vary slightly.


  • 1 style of T-shirt is designed and the measurements are transferred to the pattern. Adjustments are made for differences in size and stylistic preferences.


  • 2 The parts of the T-shirt are cut to the dimensions of the pattern. The pieces consist of a tubular body or separate front and back pieces, sleeves, perhaps pockets, and trim.

Assemble the front and rear

  • 3 For tubeless fabrics, the individual pieces for the front and back should be sewn together at the sides. They connect at the seam lines to form a narrow, simple overlap seam and are sewn with an overcasting stitch. Care must be taken to ensure that a needle does not cut the thread of the fabric, which can cause tears in the garment.

Assembly of the sleeves

  • 4 Sleeve hems are usually finished before being placed on the garment, as the fabric is easier to fold when it is flat. An automated system transports the sleeves to the sewing head on a conveyor belt. The edge can be finished by turning it over, shaping the hem and sewing it, or by gluing on a ribbon. The tape can be joined as a layered seam or folded over the edge to create a seam.
  • 5 If the shirt is tubular, the sleeve material is first sewn and then inserted into the garment. Alternatively, if the jersey is "cut and sewn", the unhemmed sleeve is attached. Later, in the final phase of shirt sewing, the sleeve and side seams are sewn in a single operation.

sew the hem

  • 6 The hem of the garment is usually sewn with an overlap stitch, resulting in a flexible hem. The stitch tension should be loose enough to stretch the garment without tearing the fabric. Alternative hem styles include a combination of edge-finishing stitches.

add pockets

  • 7 pockets can be sewn on T-shirts designed for casual wear. Higher quality jerseys have interlining placed inside the pocket to help it keep its shape. The insert is inserted into the pocket when it is sewn to the front of the jersey. The pockets can be attached to the garment with automatic tucks, so the operator only has to fit the pieces of fabric and the mechanical tuck positions the pocket and sews the seam.

Sew shoulder seams

  • 8 Shoulder seams usually require a simple lap seam. Higher quality jersey manufacturers may reinforce the seams with tape or elastic. Depending on the style of the jersey, the shoulder seams can be finished before or after the neck tape is attached. If, for example, a tubular neckband is to be applied, the shoulder seams must first be closed.

Attaching the neck strap

  • 9 For crew neck shirts, the collar edge should be slightly shorter in circumference than the outer edge where it meets the garment. Therefore, the neckband needs to be stretched enough to prevent bulging. Tubular neckbands are applied manually. The ribbons are folded, reverse sides together, slightly stretched and aligned at the neckline. The overlapping seam is topstitched with backstitch.

    The binding seams are finished with a cover stitch and are easy to reach. Bonded seams can be used in a variety of neckline styles. In this process, the ribbed fabric goes through machines that fold the fabric and apply tension to it.

    Some neckbands on cheaper shirts are attached separately to the front and back necklines of the garment. So when the shoulder seams are sewn, the seams on the neck tape are visible.

    V-necks require the additional step of lapping or mitering the neck tape. In the above method, one side is folded over the other. A miter seam is more complex and requires an operator to precisely overlap the tape and sew the tape down the center of the front. An easier method for a V-neck style is to pin the tape at the neckline, then sew a pleat to form a V.

trim completion

  • 10 overlapping seams can be glued to make the shirt stronger and more comfortable. The tape can be extended down the back and over the shoulder seams to reinforce that area as well and flatten the seam. Then the seam is overstitched or overstitched.

label setting

  • 11 One or more labels are usually placed on the back of the neckline. The labels provide information about the manufacturer, size, fabric content, and washing instructions.

optional features

  • 12 Some jerseys are cut-out or screen-printed for decorative purposes. Special toddler shirts have larger head openings. The shoulder seams are left open near the neckline and buttons or other fasteners are attached.


  • 13 T-shirts are checked for fabric, stitching and thread defects.
  • 14 High-quality T-shirts can be pressed through steam tunnels before packaging. The packaging depends on the type of shirt and the intended distribution point. For underwear, the shirts are folded and packed in pre-printed bags, usually clear plastic, that contain information about the product. Shirts can be boxed or folded around cardstock to help them keep their shape during shipping and on the shelf. Finally, they are placed in boxes by the dozen or half dozen.


Most garment manufacturing operations are governed by state and international regulations. Manufacturers can also set policies for the company. There are specific standards for the T-shirt industry, including proper sizing and fit, proper needles and seams, types of stitches, and number of stitches per inch. The stitches should be loose enough to allow the garment to stretch without tearing the seam. Hems should be flat and wide enough to prevent sagging. Shirts should also be checked for a snug neckline, which should lie flat against the body. The neckline should recover properly even after a slight stretch.

The future

Exposure to the sun's harmful rays has become a concern for many people who enjoy outdoor activities. In addition to sunscreen and sunglasses, sun protection shirts are now available. Founded by Harvey Schakowsky, SPF Wear has introduced a line of clothing, including t-shirts, that block 93-99% of UV rays. A typical t-shirt only blocks 50% of the rays. Made from a fabric called Solarweave, these new jerseys are made from synthetically woven nylon that has been treated with a special chemical.

Where can you learn more?


Carr, H. y B. Latham.Clothing manufacturing technology.Oxford BSP Professional Books, 1988.

Glock, Ruth E. y Grace I. Kunz.Manufacture of garments: analysis of sewn products.Macmillan, 1990.

SOLINGER, J.Garment manufacturing manual.Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.


Callahan, Peter. "Sunday Best: protective gear for your day in the sun."omni,October 1992, p.

Kopkind, Andreas. "From A to T".Harper's Bazaar,July 1993, S. 34-36.

Audra Avizienis

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