5 factors affecting plant growth (2023)

Environmental factors such as temperature, light, water, nutrients and soilaffect plant growth from germination to flowering. It is important to understand which factors and how they affect the growth and development of plants. Here, the main focus is on the first 5 factors that significantly affect plant growth. Let's take a quick look at them.


Plants can only survive or grow within a certain temperature range. Since the enzymes involved in metabolic activities work differently at different temperatures, the temperature changesplant growthit also has three important points: the lowest, the most suitable and the highest temperature. The three critical temperature points for the development of different plants are different.

In some specific plants, seeds can germinate when the soil temperature is above 1°C. However, if you want the seedlings to sprout clean, it is better to sow the seeds when the soil temperature is above 8-10 ℃. The optimum temperature for germination is between 25 and 35 °C. However, the highest temperature should not exceed 45 ℃. The higher the temperature, the faster germination occurs. The suitable growth temperature for the seedling stage is 10-15 ℃; 18-30 ℃ for rapid growth phase (19-25 ℃ is best); 18-20 ℃ for flowering and fruits. The seeds can survive at 3-5 ℃ and lower temperatures within 10-15 days after germination. When the temperature drops to -5℃, seed growth will be delayed. However, if you provide enough water and nutrients, low temperature in the seedling stage will not affect later development and yield.

After flowering begins, they are less tolerant to low temperatures. The plant bud dies easily when exposed to low temperatures. It is known that the average day and night temperature has a significant influence on the growth of plants. Stems grow the fastest, especially from budding to the end of flowering. At that time, you should maintain the optimal temperature at 16 (night) -25 ℃ (day).


According to different plant growth characteristics,Light intensityThe brightness suitable for plant photosynthesis is generally 10,000-30,000 lux. In dark conditions, plants show the following characteristics: thin stems, long nodes, brittle (underdeveloped mechanical tissue), small and curled leaves, underdeveloped roots, and yellowing throughout the plant. This phenomenon is called chlorosis.

Different plants have different requirementsLight intensity. In the case of heliophilous or heliophytic plants, sunlight/artificial light affects them in two main ways: First, the total amount of light that the heliophytes received (or received) during the growth cycletotal exposure), and the second is the amount of sunlight they receive each day (ordaily exposure). In general, daily exposure has a greater effect on plant dry weight. However, overall exposure has a greater impact on fiber quality (strength of the resulting fiber). High light density promotes bud germination and flower development of heliophyte plants during seed reserve or oil growing, thereby increasing seed yield. However, if you only want to get the final yield, it is better to choose a low light density to improve the yield and fiber quality, since low light can prevent bud germination and reduce the growth of branches to the tip.

Therefore, adjusting the light intensity in different growing seasons is crucial for plants. In most situations, sunlight is uncontrolled due to weather changes. This is why many people grow plants in grow tents. They also build plant lamps to provide enough light. Recently, LED grow lights have become increasingly popular among indoor growers. There are many of thempopular high efficiency grow lightsSales on online platforms.

In addition to the intensity of lighting, the duration of lighting is also crucial for healthy plant growth, especially with short-day plants. Shortening the lighting time can encourage flowering. However, this can result in low height and low fiber yield. Increasing the lighting time can delay the flowering process. This can help plants grow taller and encourage higher fiber yields due to the extended growing season.


Tall plants usually use a lot of water. For the production of one kilogram of dry matter, these plants need at least 300 ml of water, but no more than 500 ml.

During the period of germination or the firstsix weeks of growth phaseYou need to provide enough moisture to the soil. In the phase of rapid growth (growth height increases by 4-6 cm/day) soil moisture should be 70-80% of field soil moisture. At this water level, plant growth is at its best. And that favors an increase in fiber yield. As plants progress through the budding and flowering stages, they grow taller and use more water, accounting for 50-55% of total water consumption during the growing season.

When the stem grows 50-70 cm, the plants become more resistant to drought. Therefore, as long as the plant's seeds are ripe, you can reduce irrigation water and keep the soil slightly moist, increasing seed yield. But do not allow the environment to become too dry and overheated because this condition favors early maturity, lower plant height and lower yield. During the flowering and ripening period, however, you should avoid overwatering, as overwatering can easily cause the stems of the plant to turn moldy and black.

The amount of water needed by plants depends on the quantitynutrient ratiosdown in the ground. With good fertilization, the need for water is 575-985 cubic meters. With poor or no fertilization, however, the water requirement rises to 790-1180 cubic meters. This means that irrigation and nutrition are interconnected.


Plants undergo photosynthesis during the growth process and synthesize many nutrients through the root system to absorb effective nutrients from the soil and synthesize nutrients. There are three well-known elements that plants need during the growth phase: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (potassium). Some plants with tall stems have the highest requirements for nitrogen, others for potash (potassium), and the least for phosphorus. 1 ton of production per hectare requires 15-20 kg of nitrogen, 15-20 kg of K2O and 4-5 kg ​​of P2O5.

Plants take up different amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash (potassium) during different growing seasons. In the growing season, a plant with a high talc content needs a lot of nitrogen fertilizer, especially in the first 6-8 weeks. But not too much; Excessive nitrogen supply has a detrimental effect on fiber content and fiber strength.

Plants need a stable supply of phosphate fertilizers throughout the growing period. Growers should continue to give plants phosphate before flowering. Phosphorus can help plants absorb nitrogen efficiently.

Apart from this,from germination to harvest, the plant's need for potassium (potassium) increases and reaches a maximum during the period of fiber formation. Potassium (potassium) has a greater influence on fiber quality than phosphorus.

In addition, certain trace elements such as copper, sodium, boron, manganese, zinc, etc. have certain effects on the growth of plants with high content and improvement of fiber quality. Practice has shown that potassium (potassium), manganese and magnesium have the greatest effect on the production and development of fibers. Manganese, magnesium, potassium (potassium)-ten-magnesium increase production by 27-30%, and potassium (potassium), potassium (potassium)-ten-manganese increase production by 15-17%.


Strict ecological requirements apply to some specific plants, eg B. Deep and soft soil, vital water and preservation of fertility, rich in organic matter, convenient drainage and irrigation. They also require soil pH. In general, a soil pH between 5.8 and 7.8 (ranging from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline) is the best condition for plant growth. Sandy loam is best for growing certain crops with a high talc content, followed by clay soil. On the other hand, heavy loam, sandy soil and highly alkaline soils are not suitable for cultivation.

Soil properties affect not only yield, but also fiber quality. Plants growing in sandy loam and gravel loam usually have good fiber color, less oil and high productivity. Therefore, the yield and quality of fibers depend on the structure of the soil, drainage, and the quantity and proportion of nutrients.


With a basic understanding of environmental factors, you can manipulate plants to meet increased fruit production needs. Before you start planting indoors, it's important to understand that plant needs are key to healthy plant growth. System problems caused by environmental influences can also be diagnosed at the same time.

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